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The legitimacy of the election process can be questioned by the public when there is an electronic vote, rather than traditional ballots with pen and paper. In Oxford, we also heard from government representatives from Guatemala, Belize, Mexico and Colombia about the cybersecurity threats they face. Participants learned that overwhelmingly, threats come in the form of viruses and malware.

However, some countries had found hacks that could be traced back to government actors. The Commonwealth encourages cooperation between member countries so that there is awareness and knowledge of these cybersecurity risks. It is only with an understanding of these threats that frameworks can be developed to manage them.

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The workshop participants also heard from the UK National Cyber Security Centre about the volume and types of cybersecurity threats experienced in the UK. Amazon supporters in the UK may have been alarmed to discover that Amazon found it could not avoid paying 2. But rest assured, the British government found a way of offloading the money it is saving in austerity measures - you know, taking money away from social services and libraries and public transport and so on - it gave slightly more BACK to Amazon in subsidies.

More on why you should avoid Amazon. Amazon campaigns designed to exploit small businesses until they are able to kill it completely: Amazon actively and explicitly advises people to go into shops to see what they want to buy, touch it, talk to a sales person about it etc and then buy it from Amazon. But they did and do. Please be advised that where you sit in my ranking of the world is scum. Censorship of books. This one is both alarming and hilarious and results from the modern mentality of people wanting to get everything for nothing.

You get on Amazon, you buy self-published books and they are SO cheap. So Amazon started to employ people for whom English is not their first language this is my understanding , doubtless paying them the fair wage that all your good supporters of Amazon care about so much, and got them to start going through these self-published books and pulling them off Amazon lists, informing the writers that they had to be brought up to a publishable standard.

How interesting that Amazon is now the world opinion on what that is. Laughably, some people pulled were well-established and credentialed writers who used language in the ways they pleased…. Not that the writers are laughing, but hey, go with the flow, right, boys. What do you care if Amazon employees re-write the books you buy for next to nothing on Amazon. I particularly like this story as a person who has spent quite a lot of my life not only writing, but also editing, type-setting etc.

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Amazon Turk, crowd-sourcing, which some of you will know about. You get a group of people to do work for you, ranging from unskilled to highly skilled, ranging in pay offered from nothing seriously to whatever you think is appropriate. I am involved with a uni group in Geneva who has been using this to gather data for their research. A little while ago they got a message from Amazon saying that they were in violation of their agreement for asking workers to download an app.

Next workers would decide whether they wish do to this. But no, for whatever reason, it is illegal. Being a uni group, spread around the world, it took them a while to figure out what to do about this. Meanwhile, Amazon wrote to them, closed their account for ever with no possibility of recourse to any higher authority AND confiscated all the money in their account.

Amazon tells you that you are doing something illegal, closes you down and takes all your money whilst giving you no right to appeal, discussion, NOTHING. A handy way for Amazon to make a few extra bucks, wouldn't you say? I'm gobsmacked that this is legal. Indeed, I sat next to Manny as he spent some hours now and then putting lots of book information back onto the site as part of his attempt to help.

And I challenge Paul in his idea that ALL these sorts of things are started up by people expecting to make a huge amount of money whilst getting most people to work for nothing and that we should all know and expect that. Why should the internet be any different from businesses in general? There are some that are set up for greed. There are lots set up for love. I think people believed goodreads was one of the latter…. What I am at a complete loss to understand is that to me, speaking as a historian, it is so obvious that what is happening with Amazon is close to some horrific science fiction story somebody like Orwell or Bradbury would write and we all would be reading thinking, hey, we're gonna make sure THAT never happens.

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But it is. And you all don't get it. How to buy books and avoid Amazon. Buy books they have in stock. Ask them to order books for you. Be happy to have had a nice walk, a browse in a shop stocked by people who care, be happy to talk to a human being in the flesh. Understand that paying them extra is what you have to do unless you want your books to be shipped to you from a migrant undercutting the local workforce whilst housed in some sort of camp guarded by dogs.

Do your local streets look better if they have book shops and bric a brac shops, clothes shops, butchers, bakers and green grocers? Buying online. Secondhand books. My business was part of the movement at the time that established ABE as the biggest of the databases that exist now. These are collectives of secondhand booksellers who joined forces so that the customer could go to one place and see and compare what was available from them.

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My business is still on ABE even though it has been taken over by Amazon. Certainly not for us. We are still a large number of independent booksellers just as before. We still all independently pay our tax. I know we pay every cent we owe not only legally but also morally. Somebody has to pay tax.

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I most highly recommend www. For Australians, at least, there is also www. Both these sites are large databases of big groups of booksellers. From any of these you will also get links to individual sellers and their sites — we have a site and a blog, for example. I would beg you to go to secondhand booksellers rather than Oxfam, which with various unfair advantages, is aggressively and hostilely competing with booksellers.

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If you want to live in a community, support the community. If you want to live in a wasteland, shop at Oxfam. May I add another complication. All sites like biblio and ABE start off with high standards, you have to demonstrate in some way that you are a bookseller of repute, because it is by their thus established good name that they are able to start letting in all and sundry without any standards.

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Booksellers are little people. They can see their books, they know what they look like, each book is a precise entity. They are like us, we have about 45, books listed on line with maybe another 50, we are struggling to get through to list. New books. Quite the saddest moment in my book buying life recently was discovering that The Book Depository is now owned by Amazon. It was the leading competitor.

So, Amazon waits. If say The Book Depository stays really small, it ignores it. That was the argument that led to the ruling that permitted Amazon to buy The Book Depository. To be fair, realising that there are various ways of being owned by Amazon, I started a written discussion with The Book Depository to find out if they are still paying their taxes as they did, ie in the UK and in an one hopes honest way. I never received a frank answer to this. That has me now at a point where I have decided to stop buying from The Book Depository, even though it is with a heavy heart: living in a non-English speaking country it is relatively hard to buy books in English.

We do have a couple of new bookshops here which stock English books, one of which is specifically and only English. I love it being there and I hate the thought that it is going to close down sooner or later because we all want to save a few bucks by buying online.