In Haydn said of Symphonies nos. Gallini, the impresario of the Italian opera. Salomon himself had had business dealings with Haydn, who in a letter to Bland of April referred to 40 ducats owed him by Salomon. London was the largest and economically most vibrant city in the world, made even more cosmopolitan by refugees from the French Revolution.
He immediately plunged into a hectic social and professional life which, however stimulating, competed with his need to compose:.
My arrival caused a great sensation … I went the rounds of all the newspapers for three successive days. Everyone wants to know me … If I wanted, I could dine out every day; but first I must consider my health, and second my work. He also had to give fortepiano lessons, primarily to high personages; he was soon invited to a ball at the Court of St James, and to a concert sponsored by the Prince of Wales later George IV. Other royal invitations followed that month and in April. The typical concert was a mixed affair, including symphonies, sonatas, arias and duets. Haydn arrived with relatively few new works except the string quartets op.
However, Symphonies nos. Symphony no.
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Only nos. His benefit concert in May fig. The following report is of the first, on 11 March :. Never, perhaps, was there a richer musical treat. It is not wonderful that to souls capable of being touched by music, haydn should be an object of homage, and even of idolatry; for like our own shakspeare he moves and governs the passions at will. His new Grand Overture [symphony] was pronounced by every scientific ear to be a most wonderful composition; but the first movement in particular rises in grandeur of the subject, and in the rich variety of air and passion, beyond any even of his own productions.
The symphony was no. Charles Burney, with whom Haydn was to become fast friends, waxed equally enthusiastic:. Haydn himself presided at the piano-forte; and the sight of that renowned composer so electrified the audience, as to excite an attention and a pleasure superior to any that had ever, to my knowledge, been caused by instrumental music in England. All the slow middle movements were encored; which never happened before, I believe, in any country.
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By the end of the season Salomon and Haydn were agreed that he would stay for another year. Haydn feared outright dismissal; as so often, it did not come to that. The summer and autumn gave him ample opportunity to compose, travel and expand his social circle. In August and early September he stayed on the estate of Nathaniel Brassey, a banker, in Hertfordshire.
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By mid-September he was back in London; on 5 November he attended an official banquet given by the newly installed Lord Mayor amusingly described in the Notebooks. On 24—5 November he stayed at Oatlands, a property of the Duke of York, who the previous day had been married to a daughter of the King of Prussia; the new duchess became one of his most loyal patrons. Meanwhile, he had begun giving piano lessons to Rebecca Schroeter, the attractive and well-to-do widow of the composer and pianist Johann Samuel Schroeter.
During the winter of —2 this relationship blossomed into a passionate affair, documented by copies Haydn made of her letters to him beginning with this one, from 7 March :. My D[ear]: I was extremely sorry to part with you so suddenly last Night … I had a thousand affectionate things to say to you, my heart was and is full of tenderness for you, you are dearer to me every day of my life … I am truly sensible of your goodness, and I assure you my D.
Oh how earnestly [I] wish to see you.
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I hope you will come to me tomorrow. I shall be happy to see you both in the Morning and the Evening. Although no letters between them survive following his departure in the summer of , they remained close: Haydn dedicated the piano trios h XV—6 to her, she witnessed an important contract of regarding English editions of his music, they were in touch again regarding business in and she was a subscriber to The Creation. As he wrote to Genzinger 17 January , complaining of overwork:.
So now a bloody harmonious war will commence between master and pupil. The newspapers are all full of it, but it seems to me that there will soon be an armistice, because my reputation is so firmly established. Pleyel behaved so modestly towards me on his arrival that he won my affection again.
I jokingly asked him once if it was true that he composed the Andante … in order to wake up the dozing English audience. He departed from London at the end of June or beginning of July, travelling via Bonn where he met Beethoven and Frankfurt. There is considerable evidence that he intended to return for the season; in the event he did not until On 24 July he arrived in Vienna, occupying the same lodgings as in the autumn of His 18 months in the Habsburg capital were uneventful.https://itlauto.com/wp-includes/spying/3909-peut-on-localiser.php
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Polzelli was in Italy still asking for money , and Mme Genzinger died on 20 January Beethoven arrived in November, and their intercourse began immediately; it included a stay at Eisenstadt with Haydn in the summer of By early winter he had decided not to return to London in : he had finally determined to undergo an operation for a long-painful polyp in his nose, and perhaps he feared travelling at a dangerous stage in the Napoleonic Wars. In any case it was to his advantage to take an additional year, so as to be able to have new compositions in his portfolio on his return.
In November Haydn produced 12 each of new minuets and German dances h IX—12 at a charity ball, and immediately published them with Artaria. Keess had produced Symphonies nos. He began the string quartets op. Later in Haydn worked on three symphonies for London, completing no. On the way they stayed in Passau, where he heard a choral arrangement of the Seven Last Words by the local Kapellmeister, Joseph Friebert. The Professional Concert having disbanded, in Haydn and Salomon had the stage to themselves.
Haydn therefore allied himself with the so-called Opera Concerts, directed by the violinist and composer Giovanni Battista Viotti, with an even larger orchestra, of approximately 60 players; Symphony no.
He composed no. He also composed sonatas nos. Another genre he took up again owing to the influence of a lady was the solo song. He also composed numerous arias, divertimentos, marches, canons and other works. His new house still not being ready for occupancy, he took lodgings on the Neuer Markt in the old city. In , by contrast, he returned as a culture-hero. The key figure was Baron van Swieten, the imperial librarian and censor and the resolutely high-minded leader of the Gesellschaft der Associirten, an organization of noble patrons who subsidized large-scale performances of oratorios and the like.
He composed little instrumental music: no orchestral works save the Trumpet Concerto and only one piano work the trio no.
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Both the Missa Sancti Bernardi von Offida Heiligmesse and the Missa in tempore belli Paukenmesse are dated ; the former was apparently composed first and performed in Eisenstadt, while the latter originated in the autumn and was first given at the Piaristenkirche in Vienna on 26 December, then produced in Eisenstadt in Although one later account has Swieten manipulating things, the immediate impetus came from Count Joseph Franz Saurau, the president of Lower Austria and later Minister of the Interior:. I have often regretted that unlike the English we had no national anthem suited to display before the entire world the devoted attachment of the people to their Landesvater … This seemed especially necessary at a time when the Revolution in France was raging at its strongest ….
Haydn identified thoroughly with the cultural politics of this project. Later in he employed the melody as the basis for the variation movement in the String Quartet op. But Haydn and Swieten were already pursuing bigger game. The Associirten guaranteed Haydn ducats and subsidized the copying and performance. Haydn, whose enthusiasm for the project was bound up with his experience of Handel in London, conceived the remarkable notion of disseminating the work in both German and English it is apparently the first original bilingual composition.
Swieten translated the libretto and adapted the English prosody to his German version; he also made suggestions regarding the musical setting, many of which Haydn adopted. The effect was overwhelming; Silverstolpe reported:.
No one, not even Baron van Swieten, had seen the page of the score wherein the Creation of Light is portrayed … Haydn had the expression of someone who is thinking of biting his tongue, either to hide his embarrassment or to conceal a secret. The enchantment of the electrified Viennese was so profound that the performers could not proceed for some minutes. The work immediately became a staple especially of charity performances, many conducted by Haydn himself, which brought in tens of thousands of gulden. The success which my Oratorio The Creation has been fortunate enough to enjoy … [has] induced me to arrange for its dissemination myself.
Thus the work will appear … neatly and correctly engraved and printed on good paper, with German and English texts; and in full score, so that [at least] one work of my composition will be available to the public in its entirety, and the connoisseur will be in a position to see it as a whole and to judge it.